COMPARATIVE DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT
Political Science 147, Sociology 112
Stanford University, Winter Quarter 2019
Course Description and Requirements
This course is intended as a broad survey of the political, social, cultural, economic, institutional, and international factors that foster and obstruct the development and consolidation of democracy. Each factor will be examined in historical and comparative perspective, with reference to a variety of different national experiences. An important aim of the course is to encourage each student to relate the historical development and contemporary situation of a particular country or region to the various theories about democratic development, and to evaluate those theories in light of the experience of a country, set of countries, or region. You are thus encouraged to relate the analytical readings in the course to other study you may be doing or knowledge you may have of a particular country or region. You are also encouraged to read at least one of the regional chapters (8, 9, 10, 11 or 12) in The Spirit of Democracy and other recent relevant case study materials.
This course is primarily intended for upper-division undergraduates who are prepared to do a lot of work, but committed freshmen have successfully taken the course in the past, and graduate students often benefit from it. As an intensive survey of a broad literature, the course has heavy reading assignments. It is not expected that you will do all of the reading every week, but you are expected to do a substantial amount of the assigned reading each week, particularly those items to be discussed in section. This will generally amount to 100-150 pages each week. One purpose of the discussion sections is to help students review, distill, discuss, and debate with one another the required reading for each week. In each of the three essay exams you will be expected to master a particular theme, problem, or debate more comprehensively, and to draw relevant linkages across themes and between theories and case studies. Your effectiveness in engaging the readings in a systematic, responsive, and creative way in these essay exams will heavily determine your grade in the course.
The mid-term and final will be take-home essay exams. Each student will answer one essay question for the mid-term exam and two for the final exam, with each essay counting for 30% of the grade. Each essay should range from 2,000 to 3,000 words maximum (about 6-10 pages typed, doubled spaced). Ten percent of the grade will be determined by participation in section (mandatory) and in class.
Mid-term: Distributed Thursday, January 31; due Tuesday, February 5
Final Part I: Distributed Thursday, March 7; due Tuesday, March 19
Final Part II: Distributed Thursday, March 14; due Tuesday, March 19
Note: Students with Documented Disabilities
Students who may need an academic accommodation based on the impact of a disability must initiate the request with the Student Disability Resource Center (SDRC) located within the Office of Accessible Education (OAE). SDRC staff will evaluate the request with required documentation, recommend reasonable accommodations, and prepare an Accommodation Letter for faculty dated in the current quarter in which the request is being made. Students should contact the SDRC as soon as possible since timely notice is needed to coordinate accommodations. The OAE is located at 563 Salvatierra Walk, (tel 723-1066).
SCHEDULE OF LECTURES
Week beginning January 7
Introduction to the Course, Why Democracy?
What Is Democracy? Regime Types
The Third Wave of Democratization; the Democratic Recession
Week beginning January 14
Legitimacy, Authority and Effectiveness
Week beginning January 21
Political Culture and Democracy
Are Democratic Values Universal?
Week beginning January 28
Class Structure and Inequality
Week beginning February 5
Democratic Transition: Paths and Drivers
Democratic Transition: Types and Means
Week beginning February 12
Political Institutions and Constitutional Design
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Government
Parties and Party Systems
Week beginning February 19
Choosing between Different Systems
Week beginning February 26
Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict
Managing Ethnic Conflict
Week beginning March 5
Horizontal Accountability and the Rule of Law
Week beginning March 12
REQUIRED COURSE TEXTS
1. Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy: The Struggle to Build Free Societies Throughout the World (New York: Times Books, 2008).
2. Robert A. Dahl, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition (Yale University Press, 1971).
3. Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).
4. Juan J. Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Crisis, Breakdown and Reequilibration (John Hopkins University Press, 1978).
5. Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries, second edition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012).
6. Andreas Schedler, Larry Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner, eds., The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999).
SCHEDULE OF READINGS
Note: Readings designated by brackets [ ] are recommended but not required. Readings from the Journal of Democracy (marked JOD in the left margin) can be accessed at http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy.
January 8 | Introduction to the Course, Concepts of Democracy
Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy , pp. 20-26
JOD Philippe Schmitter and Terry Karl, "What Democracy Is...and Is Not," Journal of Democracy 2 (July 1991): 75-88.
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 1-32.
JOD Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino, “The Quality of Democracy: An Overview,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 20-31.
January 10 | The Third Wave of Democratization, The Democratic Recession
Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 3-46
Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, 39-55, [56-87].
Larry Diamond, In Search of Democracy (2016), ch. 4, “Is Democracy in Decline?” pp. 76-100.
JOD Jacques Rupnik, “Explaining Eastern Europe: The Crisis of Liberalism,” Journal of Democracy 29 (July 2018): 24-38.
JOD Marc F. Plattner, “Is Democracy in Decline?” Journal of Democracy 26 (January 2015): 5-10.
JOD Guillermo O'Donnell, "Delegative Democracy," Journal of Democracy 5 (1994): 55-69.
JOD Steven Levitsky and Lucan A. Way, “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism, Journal of Democracy 13 (April 2002): 51-65.
January 15 | Legitimacy, Authority, and Effectiveness
S. M. Lipset, Political Man, Ch. 3, "Social Conflict, Legitimacy and Democracy," pp. 64-79.
S. M. Lipset, The First New Nation, Ch. 1 "Establishing National Authority," pp. 15-23, 44-46, 59-60, 313-315.
J. J. Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, pp. 16-23.
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 129-149.
Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 77-93, 174-200
Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 46-58.
[David Doyle, “The Legitimacy of Political Institutions: Explaining Contemporary Populism in Latin America,” Comparative Political Studies 44 (2011): 1447-1473, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0010414011407469.]
January 17 | Democratic Consolidation
Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 64-77.
JOD Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan, “Toward Consolidated Democracies,” Journal of Democracy 7 (April 1996): 14-33.
JOD Andreas Schedler, “What is Democratic Consolidation?” Journal of Democracy 9 (April 1998): 91-107.
Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, ch. 7, 153-168.
Steven Levitksy and Daniel ZIblatt, How Democracies Die (New York: Crown, 2018), Ch.5, “The Guardrails of Democracy,” pp. 97-117.
JOD [Thomas Carothers, “The End of the Transition Paradigm,” Journal of Democracy 13 (January 2002): 5-21.]
[Milan Svolik, “Which Democracies Will Last? Coups, Incumbent Takeovers, and the Dynamic of Democratic Consolidation,” British Journal of Political Science 45 (2014): 715-738.]
January 22 | Political Culture
Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp.161-174, 200-217
Robert A. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1992), pp. 86-91,109-115.
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 124-129, [150-188].
Larry Diamond, Chapter 8, “Are People Losing Faith in Democracy?” in Ill Winds: Saving Democracy from Russian Rage, Chinese Ambition and American Complacency, forthcoming (to be distributed)
Richard Wike and Janell Fetterolf, “Liberal Democracy’s Crisis of Confidence,” Journal of Democracy 29 (October 2018): 136-150.
Robert Mattes and Michael Bratton, “Do Africans Still Want Democracy?” Afrobarometer Policy Paper No. 36, November 2016, https://afrobarometer.org/sites/default/files/publications/Policy%20papers/ab_r6_policypaperno36_do_africans_want_democracy.pdf.
Yun-han Chu, “East Asia’s Challenged Democracies in Global Perspective: Evidence from Asian Barometer Survey,” Asian Barometer Working Paper No. 138, November 2017, http://www.asianbarometer.org/publications//405383e73f2e175862d22da28cddc2f3.pdf
[Kaitlen J. Cassel, John A. Booth, and Mitchell A. Seligson, “Support for Coups in the Americas: Mass Norms and Democratization,” Latin American Politics and Society 60 (no. 4, 2018): 1-18.]
Online Data Analysis
January 24 | Are Democratic Values Universal?
Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, pp. 17-20, 26-38, 176-179, 198-199, 257-259, 277-278.
Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 298-311.
JOD Amartya Sen, “Democracy as a Universal Value,” JOD 10 (July 1999): 3-17.
JOD Russell Bova, “Democracy and Liberty: The Cultural Connection,” JOD 8 (January 1997): 112-126.
Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1996), pp. 192-198.
JOD Rached Ghannouchi, “Islam and Democracy in Tunisia,” Journal of Democracy 29 (July 2018): 5-8
[Michael Bratton, “The ‘Alternation Effect’ in Africa,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 147-158.]
Students are invited to read two or three selections from those below:
For Students Interested in Asia
"Culture is Destiny: A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew," Foreign Affairs 73 (March/April 1994): 109-121, 125-126.
Kim Dae Jung, "Is Culture Destiny?" Foreign Affairs 73 (November-December 1994): 189-194.
Lucian Pye, Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority (Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. 18-29.
JOD His Holiness the Dalai Lama, “Buddhism, Asian Values, and Democracy,” JOD 10 (January 1999): 3-7, and in Democracy: A Reader, ch. 24.
JOD Francis Fukuyama, "Confucianism and Democracy," JOD 6 (April 1995): 20-33, and in Democracy: A Reader, ch. 23.
Daniel A. Bell, The China Model, pp. 63-68, 75-80, 99-109, and Andrew Nathan's review, "Beijing Bull: The Bogus China Model," The National Interest, November-December, 2015, https://nationalinterest.org/feature/beijing-bull-the-bogus-china-model-14107
For Students Interested in The Middle East and Islamic World
Elie Kedourie, Democracy and Arab Culture (Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1992), pp. 1-11.
JOD Amaney Jamal and Mark Tessler, “The Democracy Barometers: Attitudes in the Arab World,” JOD 19 (January 2008): 97-110.
JOD Mark Tessler, Amaney Jamal and Michael Robbins, “New Findings on Arabs and Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 23 (October 2012): 89-103.
JOD Michael Robbins, “After the Arab Spring: People Still Want Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 26 (October 2015): 80-89.
JOD Anwar Ibrahim, “Universal Values and Muslim Democracy,” JOD 17 (July 2006): 5-12.
JOD Abdou Filali-Ansary, “Muslims and Democracy,” JOD 10 (July 1999): 18-32.
JOD Alfred Stepan with Graeme B. Robertson, “An ‘Arab’ More than ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 30-44.
January 29 | Economic Development and Class Structure
S. M. Lipset, Political Man, Ch. 2, "Economic Development and Democracy," pp. 27-53, 469-476.
L. Diamond, "Economic Development and Democracy Reconsidered," American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 35 March/June 1992, pp. 472-488.
JOD Adam Przeworski, et al, “What Makes Democracies Endure?” JOD 7 (January 1996): 39-55.
Huntington, The Third Wave, 59-72, 311-316.
JOD Christian Welzel and Ronald Inglehart, “The Role of Ordinary People in Democratization,” JOD 19 (January 2008): 126-140.
For Advanced Students
Michael L. Ross, "Does Oil Hinder Democracy?" World Politics 53 (April 2001): 325-361.
Carles Boix, “Democracy, Development, & the International System,” American Political Science Review 105 (November 2011): 809-828.
Class Structure and Inequality
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 81-104.
Diamond, Jonathan Hartlyn, and Juan Linz, Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America, 48-53.
JOD Francis Fukuyama, “Dealing with Inequality,” Journal of Democracy 22 (July 2011): 79-89.
JOD Nancy Bermeo, “Does Electoral Democracy Boost Economic Equality?” Journal of Democracy 20 (October 2009): 21-35.
JOD Terry Lynn Karl, “Economic Inequality and Democratic Instability,” Journal of Democracy 11 (January 2000), pp. 149-156.
JOD Francis Fukuyama, “Poverty, Inequality and Democracy: The Latin American Experience,” Journal of Democracy 19 (October 2008): 69-79.
JOD Dietrich Rueschemeyer, “The Quality of Democracy: Addressing Inequality,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 76-90.
[Hsin Huang Michael Hsiao and Hagen Koo, “The Middle Classes and Democratization,” in Larry Diamond, et al. eds., Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: (1997), pp. 312-333.]
January 31 | Civil Society
Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy, ch. 6, 218-260
Putnam, Making Democracy Work, pp. 171-185.
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. 2, Bk 2, ch 5-7.
JOD William A. Galston, “Civil Society and the ‘Art’ of Association,” Journal of Democracy 11, no. 1 (January 2000): 64-70
JOD Bronislaw Geremek, “Civil Society Then and Now,” Journal of Democracy 3 (April 1992): 3-12.
Sheri Berman, "Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic," World Politics 49 (April 1997): 401-429.
JOD Robert A. Putnam, "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital," Journal of Democracy 6 (January 1995): 65-78.
Civil Society: Case Studies (Read one or two)
JOD Rob Jenkins, “India’s Unlikely Democracy: Civil Society versus Corruption,” Journal of Democracy 18 (April 2007): 55-69.
JOD Aleksander Smolar, “Civil Society after Communism: From Opposition
to Atomization,” Journal of Democracy 7 (January 1996): 24-38.
JOD Marc Morje Howard, “The Weakness of Postcommunist Civil Society,” Journal of Democracy 13 (January 2002): 157-169.
JOD M. Steven Fish, "Russia's Fourth Transition," Journal of Democracy 5 (July 1994): 31-42.
JOD Alison Brysk, “Democratizing Civil Society in Latin America,” Journal of Democracy 11 (July 2000): 151-165.
JOD E. Gyimah-Boadi, “Civil Society in Africa,” Journal of Democracy 7, (April 1996): 118-132.
February 5 | Paths and Drivers of Democratic Transition
Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 33-47.
Dankwart Rustow, "Transitions to Democracy," Comparative Politics vol. 2 (1970), pp. 337-363.
Myron Weiner, "Empirical Democratic Theory," in Weiner and Ergun Ozbudun, eds., Competitive Elections in Developing Countries (Duke University Press, 1987), pp. 18-22.
Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, pp. 88-105.
JOD Michael McFaul, “Transitions from Postcommunism,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 5-19.
JOD Philip N. Howard and Muzammil M. Hussain, “The Upheavals in Egypt and Tunisia: The Role of Digital Media,” Journal of Democracy 22 (July 2011): 35-48.
Larry Diamond, Jonathan Hartlyn, and Juan J. Linz, Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America (DDC: LA), pp. 7-16.
Larry Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC: Africa, pp. 6-10.
Larry Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC: Asia, pp. 10-14.
February 7 | Types and Means of Transition
Guillermo O’Donnell and Philippe C. Schmitter, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), pp. 6-11, 15-21, 24-28, 37-56.
Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 109-207.
Adrian Karatnycky and Peter Ackerman, “How Freedom is Won: From Civic Resistance to Durable Democracy,” The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law 7 (June 2005): http://www.icnl.org/research/journal/vol7iss3/special_3.htm.
Kathryn Stoner, Larry Diamond, Desha Girod, and Michael McFaul, “Transitional Successes and Failures: The International-Domestic Nexus,” in Stoner and McFaul, eds., Transitions to Democracy: A Comparative Perspective (2013), pp. 14-24.
JOD [Larry Diamond, “The Opening in Burma: The Need for a Political Pact,” Journal of Democracy 23 (October 2012): 138-149.]
JOD [Thomas Carothers, “How Democracies Emerge: The ‘Sequencing’ Fallacy,” Journal of Democracy 18 (January 2007): 12-27.]
JOD [Sheri Berman, “How Democracies Emerge: Lessons from Europe,” Journal of Democracy 18 (January 2007): 28-41.]
February 12 | Basic Issues in Constitutional Design of Democracy
JOD Larry Diamond, “Three Paradoxes of Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 1 (July 1990): 48-60, and Ch. 6 in Democracy: A Reader.
Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, pp. 1-27, 31-41.
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Government
Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, ch. 7, pp. 116-142.
Matthew Shugart and John Carey, Presidents and Assemblies, pp. 1-15, 18-24.
JOD Juan Linz, "The Perils of Presidentialism," Journal of Democracy 1 (January 1990): 51-70. [for more see Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, The Failure of Presidential Democracy, 1994]
JOD Donald Horowitz, Juan Linz, and S. M. Lipset, Debate, "Presidents vs. Parliaments," Journal of Democracy 1 (October 1990): 73-92.
Scott Mainwaring, “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination,” Comparative Political Studies 26 (July 1993): 198-227.
Mathhew Shugart and John Carey, Presidents and Assemblies, pp. 38-54, 281-287 [28-38 recommended].
JOD Arturo Valenzuela, “Latin American Presidencies Interrupted,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 5-19.
JOD [Robert Elgie, “A Fresh Look at Semipresidentialism: Variations on A Theme,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 98-112)]
JOD [Gideon Maltz, “The Case for Presidential Term Limits,” Journal of Democracy 18 (January 2007): 128-142).]
[Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America (1997), pp. 12-54, 394-437]
February 14 | The Role of Institutions in Political Development
Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, pp. 8-24 [78-92, 397-412, 460-461]
JOD Francis Fukuyama, “Why is Democracy Performing So Poorly,” Journal of Democracy 26 (January 2015): 11-20).
Francis Fukuyama, Political Order and Political Decay, “Bureaucracy,” ch. 3, pp. 52-65 ((New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2014).
Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 93-99.
Parties and Party Systems
Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, ch. 5, pp. 62-89
S. M. Lipset, The First New Nation, Ch. 9, "Party Systems and the Representation of Social Groups," pp. 293-302, 306-309, 311-314. [The entire pp. 286-317 is recommended.]
S. M. Lipset, Political Man, pp. 80-82
JOD Scott Mainwaring, “Party Systems in the Third Wave,” Journal of Democracy 9 (July 1998): 67-81.
J. Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, pp. 24-38.
Larry Diamond and Richard Gunther, eds., Political Parties and Democracy (2001), pp. ix-xvi, 7-9. [other chapters recommended]
[Philippe C. Schmitter, “Parties Are Not What They Once Were,” in Diamond and Gunther Political Parties and Democracy, pp. 67-89.]
[Giovanni Sartori, Parties and Party Systems (Cambridge University Press, 1976), pp. 119-145, 185-201, 230-232, 273-392.]
February 19 & 21 | Electoral Systems
JOD Donald L. Horowitz, “Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers,” Journal of Democracy 14 (October 2003): 115-127.
Rein Taagepera and Matthew S. Shugart, Seats & Votes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), pp. 1-5, 61-66, 234-237.
Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, ch. 8, pp. 143-170 [ch 16]
JOD Arend Lijphart, "Constitutional Choices for New Democracies," Journal of Democracy 2 (January 1991): 72-84.
JOD Guy Lardeyret, Quentin Quade, and Arend Lijphart, “Debate: Proportional REpresenation,” Journal of Democracy 3 (Summer 1991): 30-48. .
JOD Ken Gladdish, "Choosing an Electoral System: The Primacy of the Particular," Journal of Democracy (January 1993): 53-65.
Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 99-111.
JOD Ben Reilly, “Electoral Systems for Divided Societies,” in Journal of Democracy 13 (April 2002): 256-170.
Ben Reilly, “A Century of Ranked-Choice Voting in Australia Offers Lessons for Maine,” Bangor Daily News, August 28, 2018, https://bangordailynews.com/2018/08/28/opinion/contributors/a-century-of-ranked-choice-voting-in-australia-offers-lessons-for-maine/.
JOD Timothy M. Meisburger, “Debating Electoral Systems: Getting Majoritarianism Right,” Journal of Democracy 23 (Jan 2012): 155-163.
JOD John M. Carey and Andrew Reynolds, “Debating Electoral Systems: Getting Elections Wrong,” Journal of Democracy 23 (Jan 2012): 164-168.
February 26 | Social Cleavages, Ethnicity, and Ethnic Conflict
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 105-123.
JOD Donald Horowitz, "Democracy in Divided Societies," Journal of Democracy 4 (October 1993): 18-38.
February 28 | Managing Ethnic and Nationality Conflict
Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, 563-576, 597-652, 681-684.
Arend Lijphart, “The Power-Sharing Approach,” in Joseph Montville, ed, Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic States (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990), pp. 491-509.
Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, pp. 270-274.
JOD Andrew Reynolds, "Constitutional Engineering in Southern Africa," Journal of Democracy 6 (April 1995): 86-100.
JOD Joel Barkan and Andrew Reynolds, Debate: PR and Southern Africa, Journal of Democracy 6 (October 1995): 106-124.
JOD [Adeed Dawisha and Larry Diamond, “Iraq’s Year of Voting Dangerously,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 89-103.]
JOD [Vincent Maphai, “The New South Africa: A Season for Power-Sharing,” Journal of Democracy 7 (January 1996): 67-82]
JOD [Ian S. Spears, “Africa: The Limits of Power-Sharing,” Journal of Democracy (July 2002): 123-136.]
Managing Religious Cleavage
JOD Alfred Stepan, “Religion, Democracy, and the ‘Twin Tolerations’,” Journal of Democracy 11 (October 2000): 37-57.
Federalism (and Decentralization)
JOD Alfred Stepan, “Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the U.S. Model,” in Journal of Democracy 10 (October 1999): 19-34, also in Democracy: A Reader, ch. 11.
March 5 | Horizontal Accountability, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption
Francis Fukuyama, Political Order and Political Decay, ch. 5, “Corruption,” pp. 81-93 (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2014).
JOD Francis Fukuyama, “Democracy and the Quality of the State,” Journal of Democracy 24 (October 2013): 5-16.
Schedler, Diamond, & Plattner, The Self-Restraining State, ch’s 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 13, 16, 20 (pp. 1-46, 75-81,123-136, 145-151, 257-279 333-350).
Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch. 13, pp. 291-313.
JOD Alina Mungiu-Pippidi, “The Quest for Good Governance: Learning through Virtuous Circles,” Journal of Democracy 27 (January 2016): 95-109.
JOD M. Steven Fish, "Stronger Legislatures, Stronger Democracies," Journal of Democracy 17 (January 2006): 5-20.
JOD Guillermo O’Donnell, “The Quality of Democracy: Why the Rule of Law Matters,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 32-46.
JOD Donald L. Horowitz, “Constitutional Courts: A Primer for Decision Makers,” Journal of Democracy 17 (October 2006): 125-137.
[Mitchell Seligson, “The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries,” Journal of Politics 64 (May 2002): 408-433.]
March 7 | Democratic Breakdowns
Juan Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, pp. 3-16, 38-86,
L. Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC: Africa, pp. 3-5.
L. Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC: Asia, pp. 3-10.
Nancy Bermeo, Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Breakdown of Democracy (2003), pp. 234-239, 252-256.
Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch. 3, pp. 56-88.
Levitsky and Ziblatt, How Democracies Die, ch 4, pp. 72-96.
JOD Ethan Kapstein and Nathan Converse, “Why Democracies Fail,” Journal of Democracy 19 (October 2008): 57-68.
JOD Scott Mainwaring and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán, “Lessons from Latin America: Democratic Breakdown and Survival,” Journal of Democracy 24 (April 2013): 123-137.
JOD Tom Ginsburg and Aziz Huq, “Democracy’s ‘Near Misses,’” Journal of Democracy 29 (October 2018): 16-30.
JOD [Nathan Brown, “Egypt’s Failed Transition,” Journal of Democracy 24 (October 2013: 45-59).]
March 12 | International Factors:
Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 85-108, 281-290.
Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch’s 5-6, pp. 106-152.
Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 189-201, 210-215.
JOD Steven Levitsky and Lucan A. Way, “International Linkage and Democratization,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 20-34.
JOD Christopher Walker, “What is ‘Sharp Power’,” Journal of Democracy 29 (July 2018): 9-23.
JOD [Douglas Rutzen, “Authoritarianism Goes Global: Civil Society under Assault,” Journal of Democracy 27 (October 2015): 28-40.]
JOD [Alexander Cooley, “Authoritarianism Goes Global Countering Democratic Norms,” Journal of Democracy 26 (July 2015): 49-63.]
[Schedler, Diamond, and Plattner, The Self-Restraining State, chs 8 & 19, pp. 123-142, 313-330]
[George P. Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State (1993), pp. 608-642, 969-982].
March 14 | Promoting Democracy
Larry Diamond, In Search of Democracy, ch. 23, pp. 419-446.
Michael McFaul, “Democracy Promotion as a World Value,” The Washington Quarterly Winter 2004-2005, pp. 147-163, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/washington_quarterly/v028/28.1mcfaul.pdf
Thomas Carothers, Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999), pp. 331-352.
JOD Thomas Carothers, “Democracy Assistance: Political vs. Developmental,” Journal of Democracy 20 (January 2009): 5-19.
JOD Carl Gershman and Michael Allen, “The Assault on Democracy Assistance,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 36-51.
David Hendrickson and Robert Tucker, "The Freedom Crusade," The National Interest 81 (Fall 2005): 12-21. http://personalwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~dhendrickson/Essays/TNI_Freedom_Crusade.htm
[Thomas Carothers, Democracy Policy under Obama: Revitalization or Retreat? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2012, pp. 7-48.]
[“The Freedom Crusade, Revisited,” by Leslie H. Gelb, Daniel Pipes, Robert W Merry and Joseph S. Nye, Jr., The National Interest Online, December 1, 2005, http://www.nationalinterest.org/Article.aspx?id=10334]