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Building Democracy after Conflict: Iraq in Comparative Perspective Winter Quarter 2009

BUILDING DEMOCRACY AFTER CONFLICT: IRAQ IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

 

Political Science 41Q (Sophomore Seminar)
Stanford University, Winter Quarter 2009

Larry Diamond
 

This is a seminar on the challenge of building democracy in the wake of violent conflict and state failure.  All of the cases it examines are of efforts at political and economic reconstruction after civil war or—in the case of Iraq and Afghanistan, international military intervention.  The seminar also focuses specifically on international efforts to assist—or even manage directly—the process of state reconstruction after conflict and the transition to a new, democratic political system. 

As we will see, building democracy in these war-torn and often dysfunctional countries is difficult, but not impossible.  Before there can be a democratic state, however, there must first be a state.  Since the state has—to varying degrees in the cases under consideration, but sometimes totally—collapsed, the early phases of intervention must focus on restoring the most basic function of any state:  the maintenance of order.  Economic stabilization and the restoration of basic services are also urgent priorities.  Sometimes, there is also an imperative for humanitarian relief.  Thus, it is not until the fifth week of the class that the seminar considers some explicit challenges of democracy building—writing a constitution, designing democratic institutions, preparing for and holding elections, and reviving civil society.  If the process of restoring and reviving the failed or war-torn state does not tackle more basic challenges of state-building—security, governance, and economic stabilization—there is no hope of building democracy.

The process of international intervention to transform failing and failed states is often referred to as “nation building” (a term used in the title of four of the seven texts).  This term, which dates from the post-World War II literature on political development, suggests the challenge of forging not just viable states but a common sense of shared nationhood among peoples who were arbitrarily inducted into a single territorial state under European colonial rule.  In many of the countries we will be examining—not least, Iraq—nationhood remains an elusive, acutely contested concept.  However, in other cases—including Germany and Japan after World War II, and more recently El Salvador and even Afghanistan—the question is not so much the legitimate boundaries of “the nation” as the legitimate character of the state.  That is the one challenge all of these cases share in common:  reconstructing a legitimate and effective state.  Thus, the more precise or universally valid term is “state building” and the particular challenge is how to build states that will be more resilient and legitimate because they have the democratic consent, participation, and validation of their own people.  Because many states that fail have done so as a result of civil war, a parallel challenge we examine in the seminar is the conditions for successful implementation of negotiated peace agreements—again, usually with significant international mediation and assistance, if not military presence.

International interventions to (help) rebuild failed states and implement peace agreements take many forms, from a “light footprint” to formal occupation.  Typically, they have followed two forms, one in which the United Nations was in the lead, through a formal UN mission, and another in which an international coalition (with varying degrees of authorization from the UN Security Council) was responsible.  In the latter instances, it has typically been the United States that has played the lead role, and thus two of the case study volumes are devoted, respectively, to the UN’s role in nation-building and to America’s role.

The lessons of the case studies in this class are deeply sobering.  Many putatively “post-conflict” countries revert to violent conflict.  Many international interventions fail, often badly. Sometimes, when they succeed (as in Cambodia) they bring peace but not democracy.  The overarching lesson of the cases is that the scope of resources (financial, military, diplomatic, administrative, and technical) committed to the task must be commensurate with the difficulty of the challenge and the goals to be achieved.    “Nation-building” is not condemned to fail always.  Many of the interventions accomplished a great deal, even when they did not succeed in building democracy at the outset.   But missions that are poorly prepared and coordinated and under-resourced will fail.  Unfortunately, there aren’t enough resources, nor is there sufficient political will, to enable successful international intervention in all the cases of conflict and humanitarian abuse that cry out for it.  This is one of the hardest lessons to absorb.

The challenge is first to understand the core conditions for success of all international “nation-building” efforts, and then the factors specific to particular types of cases.  It is hoped that this seminar will benefit students broadly interested in international security and political and economic development, and that it will be of particular value to those of you who will deal with the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction for many years to come as scholars, policy experts, diplomats, NGO leaders, military officers, or simply citizens concerned to see more responsible policy.

Course Requirements

This is an ambitious course that seeks to cover a lot of ground, empirically and analytically.  While the course should be accessible to students with relatively little background in political science or international relations, it will demand more work than the typical introductory seminar.  You are not expected to do all of the “required” reading for the course, but to benefit from the course you will have to do a considerable amount of it, as well as the following:

All students are expected to attend every seminar session and participate actively in seminar discussions. From week to week, students will sometimes present (summarize and comment on) particular readings. In addition, each student will:

• Write a take-home essay exam of about five to eight pages (double-spaced) analyzing some of the issues in the first half of the class.

• Participate in a team (group) presentation to the seminar analyzing a particular country’s experience of post-conflict reconstruction in several dimensions.  These country presentations, to be done in teams of two to four students, will evaluate and explain the outcome of a “nation-building experience” or at least the outcome to date.

• Write a final paper in the range of 12-20 pages that develops and documents some aspect of the oral team presentation, or (if you wish) that addresses a different but relevant country experience.  (While the team presentations to the seminar will be group efforts, and graded as such, the final papers will be written and graded as individual products).

The grade for the course will be determined roughly as follows:

Class participation:   10%
Mid-term essay:   25%
Oral presentation:  25%
Final paper:   40%

Schedule of Classes

January 8 Introductory Meeting: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Settings

January 15 Iraq:  What Went Wrong?

January 23       The Historical Experience of the U.S. and the U.N. with Nation-
  Building and Peace Implementation
(special Friday afternoon session)

January 29 The Security Challenge: Military, Policing, and Disarmament

February 5 Transitional Administration, Governance, and Economic Reconstruction

February 12 Constitution-making, Constitutional Design, & Electoral Systems

February 19 Elections and Democracy Building

February 26 Rule of Law and Human Rights, & Country Team Presentation (1)

March 5 Country Team Presentations (2 & 3), including Afghanistan

March 12 Country Team Presentations (4 & 5), and Policy Directions

Required Texts

James Dobbins, et al., America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq (RAND, 2003) [Note: This book can be downloaded for free at:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1753/]

James Dobbins, et al., The UN’s Role in Nation-Building: From the Congo to Iraq (Rand, 2005).  [Note: This book can be downloaded for free at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG304.pdf]

James Dobbins, et al., The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building (RAND, 2007)
[Note: This book can be downloaded for free at:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG557.pdf]

Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2002)

Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2005)

Francis Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building: Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)

Simon Chesterman, You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Course Reader

Recommended Text

Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)

Note:  The above will also be on reserve in the library.  There is no course reader.  Readings from the Journal of Democracy can be accessed at the following web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy.  Most of the other readings from journals and periodicals are also available online, generally or through the Stanford library system.



Schedule of Class Meetings and Readings

Unless otherwise indicated, start with the readings of the top of each section and work down.  Bracketed [ ] readings and page numbers are recommended but not required.

(Page numbers of documents from websites refer to the printed text page numbers and not the computer screen page numbers)

January 8 Introductory Session:  The Special Challenges of Post-Conflict Settings
  And Overview of the Course

Francis Fukuyama, “Nation-Building and the Failure of Institutional Memory,” in Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building, pp. 1-16.

George Downs and Stephen Stedman, “Evaluation Issues in Peace Implementation,” in Stedman, Rothchild, and Cousens, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, pp. 43-69.

Dobbins et al., The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, ch. 1, Preparing, pp. 1-17.

January 15 Iraq:  What Went Wrong?

Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory, ch’s 1-4, 10, 11, & Afterword, pp. 1-102, 279-360.

Toby Dodge, “The Causes of US Failure in Iraq,” Survival 49 (Spring 2007): 85-106.

James Dobbins, “Learning the Lessons of Iraq,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp 222-227.

Jonathan Landay and John Walcott, “Iraq Reconstruction Efforts Overcome by Ongoing Violence,” Knight Ridder, October 16, 2004, and Warren Strobel and John Walcott, “Post-war planning non-existent,” http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/9928087.htm. 

The Current Situation and Future Prospects
U.S. Institute of Peace, “Iraq in the Obama Administration,” http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2008/1218_iraq_obama.html.

Recommended

Toby Dodge, “Review Essay: How Iraq Was Lost,” Survival 48 (Winter 2006-07): 157-172. [ and the other books cited in Dodge’s review essay]

[Nora Bensahel, “Mission Not Accomplished: What Went Wrong with Iraqi Reconstruction,” Journal of Strategic Studies 29 (June 2006): 453-473.]

[James Fallows, “Blind into Baghdad,” The Atlantic Monthly, January-February 2004, http://www.epic-usa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=185.]

January 23     The Historical Experience of the U.S. and the U.N. with Nation-
Friday  Building and Peace Implementation

Dobbins, America’s Experience with Nation-Building (ch’s 1-3 & 9) pp 3-53, 149-166.

Ray Salvatore Jennings, “The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation-Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq,” U.S. Institute of Peace, Peaceworks 49 (April 2003), pp. 13-19, 25-30.  http://www.usip.org/pubs/peaceworks/pwks49.html. 

Douglas Porch, “Occupational Hazards: Myths of 1945 and U.S. Iraq Policy,” The National Interest (Summer 2003): 35-47.

Dobbins, The UN’s Role in Nation-Building, ch’s 11-13, pp. 213-257, & Table S.3, pp. xxxi-xxiv.

Minxin Pei, Samia Amin, and Seth Garz, “Building Nations: The American Experience,” in Fukuyama, ed. Nation-Building, pp. 64-85

Chesterman, You, the People, pp. 1-7, 25-37 (Germany), 46-47.


Janaury 29 The Security Challenge: Military, Policing, and Disarmament

Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide, chapters 2-3, pp. 19-72.

Chesterman, You, The People, chapter 3, 99-125.

Charles T. Call and William Stanley, “Civilian Security,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 303-325.

Joanna Spear, “Disarmament and Demobilization,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 141-159 [141-182]

Diamond, Squandered Victory, ch. 8, pp. 211-245.

Robert Perito, “Policing Iraq: Protecting Iraqis from Criminal Violence,” USIPeace Briefing, June 2006, http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2006/0629_policing_iraq.html.

Recommended

[Annika S Hansen,  From Congo to Kosovo: Civilian Police in Peace Operations.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.]

[Charles T. Call, “War Transitions and the New Civilian Security in Latin America.”  Comparative Politics  35 No.1 (October 2002): 1-21.]

[Charles T. Call, “”Democratisation, War, and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador,” Journal of Latin American Studies 35 (November 2003), pp. 1-12 of online version).]

Febuary 5 Transitional Administration, Governance, and Economic Stabilization & Reconstruction

Transitional Administration and Governance

Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide, chapter 6, 135-159.

Chesterman, You: The People, chapter 4, pp. 126-153.

Gerald Knaus and Felix Martin, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina: Travails of the European Raj,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 60-74.

Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict, pp. 205-211.

Recommended

[Richard Caplan, “International Authority and State Building: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Global Governance 10 (2004): 53-65.  This provides a more sympathetic view of the international administration in Bosnia than Knaus and Martin.]

[Richard Caplan, A New Trusteeship?  The International Administration of War Torn  Territories, Adelphia Paper 41, London: International Institute for Strategic  Studies, 2002.]

[Mortimer, Edward.  “International Administration of War-Torn Societies.” Global  Governance 10 (2004): 7-14.]

[Harland, David.  “Legitimacy and Effectiveness in International Administration.”   Global Governance 10 (2004): 15-19.]

Economic Stabilization and Reconstruction

Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building ch 7, 161-188 [ch 9, 213-253]

Susan L. Woodward, “Economic Priorities for Successful Peace Implementation,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 183-191, 199-210 [191-199]

S. Frederick Starr, “Sovereignty and Legitimacy in Afghan Nation-Building,” in Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building, pp. 115-118 (on NGOs).

Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 166-168


February 5, cont.

Economic Reconstruction in Iraq

Anne Ellen Henderson, “The Coalition Provisional Authority’s Experience with Economic Reconstruction in Iraq: Lessons Identified,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 138 (April 2005), 18 pages.  http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr138.pdf.

James Glanz and T. Christian Miller, “Official History Spotlights Iraq Rebuilding Blunders,” New York Times, December 14, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/14/world/middleeast/14reconstruct.html?_r=2&hp.

Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons In Program and Project Management, March 2007, pp. 7-12 [the entire report is recommended]. http://www.sigir.mil/reports/pdf/Lessons_Learned_March21.pdf.

These articles on Iraqi reconstruction are all “recommended”

Anthony Cordesman, “Reconstruction in Iraq: The Uncertain Way Ahead,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2, 2007, pp. ii-iv, 1-3, 50-53 [4-32, or all]
http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070202_reconstruction_iraq.pdf.

James Glanz, “Agency Says Rebuilding Failures Show Need for Change,” New York Times, March 22, 2007.

James Glanz, “In Race to Give Power to Iraqis, Electricity Lags,” New York Times June 14, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/14/international/middleeast/14POWE.html?pagewanted=2&ei=5007&en=3e8bb47983b53c86&ex=1402545600&partner=USERLAND.

Aram Roston, “Slow Progress with Iraq Reconstruction,” MSNBC, Sept. 3, 2004.

James Glanz and Erik Eckholm, “Reality Intrudes on Promises in Rebuilding,” New York Times, June 30, 2004, http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/mideast/iraq/2257.html.

Paul Krugman, “Accounting and Accountability,” New York Times, July 23, 2004.

Johanna Mendelson Forman, “Striking out in Baghdad: How Postconflict Reconstruction Went Awry,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 196-217.

The website of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction: http://www.sigir.mil/ , and especially their “lessons learned” studies:
http://www.sigir.mil/initiatives/lessonslearned.aspx

Frederick Barton and Bathsheba Crocker, et al., Progress or Peril: Measuring Iraq’s Reconstruction, Center for Strategic and International Studies, September 2004.

February 12 Constitution-making, Constitutional Design, & Electoral Systems

Jamal Benomar, “Constitution-Making after Conflict: Lessons for Iraq,” Journal of Democracy 15 (April 2004): 81-95.

Chesterman, You: The People, pp. 210-218.

Diamond, Squandered Victory, chapter 6, pp. 140-178.
Democratic Principles Working Group of the Iraqi Opposition, “Iraqi Opposition Report on the Transition to Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 13-29. 
Larry Diamond, “Key Democratic Principles of Iraq’s Transitional Administrative Law,” Remarks in Salah ad Din Governorate, March 21-22, 2004, http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/speechTAL032104.htm
Jonathan Morrow, “Iraq’s Constitutional Process II: An Opportunity Lost,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report, Nov. 2006, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr155.pdf.
Institutional Designs and Electoral Systems:

Andrew Reynolds, “Building Democracy after Conflict: Constitutional Medicine,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 54-68.

Donald Horowitz, “Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers,” Journal of Democracy 14 (October 2003): 115-127.

Arend Lijphart, “Constitutional Design for Divided Societies,” Journal of Democracy 15 (April 2004): 96-109.

Benjamin Reilly, “Electoral Systems for Divided Societies,” Journal of Democracy 13 (April 2002): 156-170.

Adeed Dawisha and Larry Diamond, “Iraq’s Year of Voting Dangerously,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 89-103.

Andrew Reynolds, “The Curious Case of Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 104-117.

Carrie Manning and Miljenko Antić, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzogovina: The Limits of Electoral Engineering,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 45-59.

[Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (University of California Press, 1985), pp. 563-576, 597-652, 681-684.]

[Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner, eds., Electoral Systems and Democracy (2006), contains many of the above articles and others.]
February 19 Elections and Democracy Building

Dobbins, Beginner’s Guide, chapter 8, “Democratization,” pp. 189-221, and chapter 4, “Rule of Law,” pp. 73-107.

Chesterman, You: The People, pp. 204-210, 218-235.

Terrence Lyons, “The Role of Postsettlement Elections,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 215-237.

Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory, ch’s 5, 7, 9, pp. 103-139, 179-210, 246-278.

Larry Diamond, March 24, 2004 CPA memo and March 25, 2004 Draft Memo on Political Parties Law

Democracy education for Iraq:  Nine brief themes (draft civic education plan):
http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/DemocracyEducation0204.htm
& Larry Diamond, “What is Democracy?” Lecture to Hilla University for Higher Humanistic Studies, January 21, 2004 http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/WhaIsDemocracy012004.htm.

Larry Diamond, “How A Vote Could Derail Democracy,” New York Times, January 9, 2005.

Recommended
Krishna Kumar and Jeroen de Zeeuw, “Democracy Assistance to Postconflict Societies,” pp. 1-15, and Jeroen de Zeeuw and Luc van de Goor, “Findings and Recommendatiions, pp. 275-290, in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006).

Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 5-8 [151-165, 168-175, 179-199]

[Thomas Carothers, “The Rise of Election Monitoring: The Observers Observed,” Journal of Democracy 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 17-31]

[Jorgen Elklit and Palle Sevensson, “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?” Journal of Democracy 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 32-46]

[Krishna Kumar,  “Postconflict Elections and International Assistance,”, pp. 5-14, Kumar “After the Elections: Consequences for Democratization,” 215-226; and Kumar and Marina Ottaway, “General Conclusions and Priorities for Policy Research,” pp. 229-237, in Kumar, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner)]

[Call, Charles T., and Susan E. Cook.  “On Democratization and Peacebuilding.” Global  Governance 9 (2003): 233-246.]
February 26 Rule of Law and Human Rights

Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, ch. 4, 73-107.

Laurel Miller and Robert Perito, “Establishing the Rule of Law in Afghanistan,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 117, March 2004, (Executive Summary, at least) http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr117.html.

Judy Barsalou, “Trauma and Transitional Justice in Divided Societies,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report No. 135, April 2005, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr135.html.

Tonya L. Putnam, “Human Rights and Sustainable Peace,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp.237-271

Recommended

[Sorpong Peou, “Human Rights Challenges in Postconflict Cambodia,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 127-149.]

[Marieke Wierda, “Transitional Justice in Sierra Leone,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 183-207.]

[Michele Flournoy and Michael Pan, “Dealing with Demons: Justice and Reconciliation,” The Washington Quarterly 25 (Autumn 2002): 111-123.]

[Charles T. Call, “”Democratisation, War, and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador,” Journal of Latin American Studies 35 (November 2003), pp. 12-27 of online version).]

March 5 Country Team Presentations, Reading on Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Marvin G. Weinbaum, “Rebuilding Afghanistan: Impediments, Lessons and Prospects,”
Larry P. Goodson, “Lessons of Nation-Building in Afghanistan”
Ch’s 6 and 7 in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 125-169.

Dobbins, America’s Role in Nation-Building, ch. 8, 129-148.

Zalmay Khalilzad, “How to Nation-Build: Ten Lessons from Afghanistan,” The National Interest (Summer 2005): 19-27.

Pamela Constable, “A Wake-Up Call in Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy 18 (April 2007): 84-98.

March 12 Lessons, Conclusions, and Policy Directions

James Dobbins, “Learning the Lessons of Iraq,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp 227-229.

Michele Flournoy, “Lessons Learned and Unlearned,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 94-96 (recommendations)

Francis Fukuyama, “Guidelines for Nation-Builders,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 231-244.

Larry Diamond, “Promoting Democracy after Conflict,” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2 (December 2006): 93-116.

Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons In Program and Project Management, March 2007, pp. 14-19, “Recommendations.” http://www.sigir.mil/reports/pdf/Lessons_Learned_March21.pdf.

Stephen Stedman, “Policy Implications,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 663-671.

Recommended

“A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility,” Report of the UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change, Part 3, Collective Security and the Use of Force, 2004, pp. 59-75.  http://www.un.org/secureworld/.

Gerald Knaus and Marcus Cox, “Building Democracy after Conflict: The ‘Helsinki Moment’ in Southeastern Europe,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 39-53.

Stephen D. Krasner, “Building Democracy after Conflict: The Case for Shared Sovereignty,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 69-83.

Robert Perito, Building Civilian Capacity for U.S. Stability Operations: The Rule of Law Component,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 118, April 2004, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr118.html.


Case Study Readings

(Search for additional reports at http://www.usip.org/pubs/reports.html, http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?.

See the case studies in Krishna Kumar, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998).

See the case studies on human rights in Guatemala and Cambodia, and others, in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006).

Iraq

Anthony Cordesman, “Reconstruction in Iraq: The Uncertain Way Ahead,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2, 2007, http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070202_reconstruction_iraq.pdf.

The Iraq Study Group Report, James A. Baker and Lee H. Hamilton, co-chairs (New York: Vintage, 2006), http://www.usip.org/isg/iraq_study_group_report/report/1206/index.html.

Iraq Revenue Watch, http://www.iraqrevenuewatch.org/.

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 10.

Books cited in Toby Dodge Review essay (see week of April 9).

Afghanistan

Frederick Barton, Bathsheba Crocker, and Morgan L. Courtney, et al., In the Balance: Measuring Progress in Afghanistan (Center for Strategic and International Studies, December 2005, 133 pages) http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/afghanistanbarton_smallsize.pdf.

Seema Patel and Steven Ross, Breaking Point: Measuring Progress in Afghanistan (Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2007, 118 pages) http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070223_breakingpoint.pdf.

Anthony Cordesman, “Winning in Afghanistan: The Challenges and the Response,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 15, 2007, http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070215_afghanbrief.pdf.

Laurel Miller and Robert Perito, “Establishing the Rule of Law in Afghanistan,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 117, March 2004, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr117.html.

Robert M. Perito, “The U.S. Experience with Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan: Lessons Identified,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 152, October 2005.  http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr152.html.

Richard J. Ponzio, “Transforming Political Authority: UN Democratic Peacebuilding in Afghanistan,” Global Governance 13 (April 2007): 255-276.

Andrew Reynolds, “The Curious Case of Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 104-117.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Dobbins, America’s Role in Nation-Building, ch. 6.

Gerald Knaus and Felix Martin, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina: Travails of the European Raj,”Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 60-74.

Carrie Manning and Miljenko Antić, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzogovina: The Limits of Electoral Engineering,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 45-59.

Caplan, Richard.  “International Authority and State Building: The Case of Bosnia and  Herzegovina.” Global Governance 10 (2005): 53-65.

Bose, Sumantra.  “The Bosnian State a Decade after Dayton.”  International  Peacekeeping 12, No. 3 (Autumn 2005): 322-335.

Elizabeth Cousens in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars, chapter 18

Roland Paris, At War’s End, 97-107

Kosovo

Dobbins, America’s Role in Nation-Building, ch. 7.

Daniel Serwer, Yll Bajraktari, and Christina Parajon, “Kosovo: What Can Go Wrong?” USIPeace Briefing, March 2007, http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2007/0308_kosovo.html. 

Other USIP reports on Kosovo and Bosnia at:
http://www.usip.org/balkans/reports.html

El Salvador

Charles T. Call, chapter 14 in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars.

Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp.122-128.
Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 4.

Nicaragua

Caroline Hartzell, chapter 13 in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars.

Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 114-122.


Cambodia

Sorpong Peu, “Implementing Cambodia’s Peace Agreement,” in Stedman, et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 499-530.

Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 79-90.

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 5

Duncan McCargo, “Cambodia: Getting Away with Authoritarianism,” Journal of Democracy 16 (October 2005): 98-112.

Trevor Findlay, Cambodia: The Legacy and Lessons of UNTAC (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Willemijn Verkoren, chapter 16 in Gerd Junne and Willemijn Verkoren, eds., Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005).

East Timor

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 9.

Ian Martin and Alexander Mayer-Rieckh.  “The United Nations and East Timor: From  Self-Determination to State-Building.”  International Peacekeeping 12 (Spring 2005): 125-145.

Anthony L Smith, “East Timor: Elections in the World’s Newest Nation,” Journal of Democracy 15 (April 2004): 145-159.

Michael G. Smith, and Moreen Dee.  Peacekeeping in East Timor, The Path to  Independence.  Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003. Chapters 3 & 4

Jonathan Steele, “Nation Building in East Timor,” World Policy Journal 19 (Summer 2002): 76-87.

Liberia

Adekeye Adebajo, “Liberia: A Warlord’s Peace,” in Stedman, Ending Civil War’s, ch.20.

Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 90-96.

Mozambique

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 6.

Alden, Chris.  Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State: From  Negotiations to Nation Building.  New York: Palgrave, 2001. Chapter 3

Marc de Tollenaere, “Fostering Multiparty Politics in Mozambique,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 75-98.

Paris, At War’s End, pp. 141-148.

Joseph O’Hanlon, chapter 15 in Gerd Junne and Willemijn Verkoren, eds., Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005).

Namibia

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 3.

Paris, At War’s End, pp. 135-141.

Sierra Leone

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 8.
Rosalind Shaw, “Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Lessons from Sierra Leone,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report no. 130, February 2005, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr130.html.

Marieke Wierda, “Transitional Justice in Sierra Leone,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 183-207.

Mohamed Gibril Sesay and Charlie Hughes, “Human Rights Assistance to Sierra Leone,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 151-182.

Rwanda

Gilber Khadiagala, chapter 16 in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars.

Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 69-78l