A critical assessment of America's effort to implant democracy in Iraq.
October 2005 | Consensus and Iraq's constitution
The constitutional referendum in Iraq won't be enough to resolve the paralyzing divisions that could lead to civil war.
The importance of accelerating or regenerating the constitutional momentum.
July 2006 | What to Do in Iraq
Stabilizing Iraq and preventing civil war.
July 2005 | Has America Failed in Iraq?
If we do not depart more sharply from our imperial posture in Iraq, we are doomed to fail.
July 2005 | Beat the Insurgents by Talking to Them
November 2004 | Was Iraq a Fool's Errand?
The reason for failure lies in Washington's execution.
October 2004 | Report from Baghdad
As a result of a long chain of U.S. miscalculations, the coalition occupation has left Iraq in far worse shape than it need have and has diminished the long-term prospects of democracy there.
October 2004 | Elections in Iraq: Not Perfect, But 'Reasonably Credible'
“Reasonably credible” elections can still be accomplished, if Iraqis and their international supporters put in place now the best possible designs and preparations.
September 2004 | What Went Wrong in Iraq
As a result of a long chain of U.S. miscalculations, the coalition occupation has left Iraq in far worse shape than it need have and has diminished the long-term prospects of democracy there. Iraqis, Americans, and other foreigners continue to be killed. What went wrong?
July 2004 | The New War for Iraq
The defeat of the Mahdi Army, in combination with a vigorous strategy for demobilizing other militias and building up the forces of a new Iraqi state can lead to a turning point in the war for Iraq.
June 2004 | An Eyewitness to the Iraq Botch
Because of a long catalog of strategic and tactical blunders, the United States has failed to come anywhere near meeting the postwar expectations of Iraqis. Though we leave behind a framework for political transition, it is hobbled by two huge deficits: security and legitimacy.
May 19, 2004 testimony to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on U.S. efforts in Iraq.
May 2004 | Transition to What in Iraq?
What lies ahead in Iraq.
If we can defang and contain the militias, while building up the new Iraqi instruments of a rule of law, a small miracle could yet unfold: reasonably free and fair elections for a transitional government (which will also write a new permanent constitution). Then, what now appears a downward spiral into civil war could well be averted, and this long-suffering country could be placed on a rocky but realizable path to democracy.
Reflections on the Transitional Administrative Law.
February 2004 | Democracy Education for Iraq--Nine Brief Themes
Nine one-paragraph explanations of different elements of democracy used as part of a civic education campaign in Iraq.
February 2004 | Why Decentralize Power in A Democracy?
Political and philosophical issues related to federalism and the decentralization of power.
February 2004 | The Long Haul for Democracy in Iraq
A democracy can be built in Iraq. But these new institutions and ways of thinking will only take root slowly.
February 2004 | What Civil Society Can Do to Develop Democracy
The role that civil society plays in building and strengthening democracy.
January 2004 | What is Democracy?
What democracy is, the obligations and requirements of citizens in a democracy, and the obligations of the international community to the people of Iraq.
April 2003 | Can Iraq Become a Democracy?
It is possible that Iraq could gradually develop into a democracy, but the task is huge and the odds are long against it.
January 2003 | Endgame
Unless Saddam is toppled from within or goes into exile, war with Iraq is inevitable, sooner or later. But how that war is fought and how Iraq is resurrected will profoundly shape the world after September 11, and the security of the United States within it.